Why most training courses fail

It’s become common for those with training budgets to be asked to justify spend in terms of Return on Investment (RoI). This is on the face of it quite reasonable as all organisations need to be sure that money is being spent wisely. And there are vast sums involved when taking training at a national level – UK government puts the figure at £45Bn or or average £1,700 for every single employee (the research with detailed figures is here). And yet academic research shows time and time again that it is really hard – if not practically impossible – to show exactly what return organisations get from that money. So I want to suggest why it is so hard to get an answer and then suggest what makes training work.

Cost of training

Imagine you have been just promoted and you are going to manage people for the first time. You have been managed all your working life so you have observed how it is done (and how it should not be done!) and this is your start point. But it is sensible for you to be given some training because your job has changed. In fact, employers are obliged to make sure staff have appropriate training for the tasks they are being asked to undertake. So you go on a course with other newly promoted managers. Typically this could be one or two days. You will be presented with ideas, given exercises and perhaps discuss issues with your peers. You might also reflect on your own management style and all in all be given some interesting ideas. This might seem to help you in your job as you have taken some time to think about your new role as manager.

So how do you measure how much monetary value the organisation is going to get from this course? Over time, perhaps you will manage your people better so that fewer of them become disenchanted and leave. There is a cost that can be placed on recruiting a new team member so there is a possibility there. But how can we be sure that someone staying is as a result of the training course? Also, how can we be sure that perhaps it was best that a particular person leaves as perhaps their replacement is more productive?

 

Valuable training

Returning to the example training course. At the end of the course, you return to work and find two days worth of work piled up and you have to spend your time catching up. There is no time to think further about applying the learning from the course and by the time a lull comes in the work, you have forgotten what you learned. And you may never see the people you were training with again.

This is a very common pattern and it becomes easy to see how learning is lost together with the RoI from the course. It is understandable that staff are released from productive work very reluctantly. But there are ways in which learning can translate from the training room to the workplace.

First, the training must involve the people around the individuals being trained. By this I mean the line manager should discuss what the training is for, what might be gained and how to embed the learning afterwards. The team should be involved through sharing the key points and reflecting on how the manager might be working differently from now on.

Second, the training must involve more than one visit to the training room. The time in between sessions is vital to allow for ideas to sink in, for further reflection to happen and for ideas to form.

Third, include some activity in between sessions. Every one is busy so clearly it is difficult to find time. But the learning will only become habit if there is a chance to try something new in a supported way. Otherwise there is a tendency to revert back to normal behaviour and changes are first put off, and then never actually happen.

Fourth, create a network. When a small group spends intensive training days together, it is wasteful not to use the network for support after the course ends. This can be by as simple a device as a WhatsApp group or email. Sophisticated training might have a web resource to use such as Moodle. but it is easy to set this up – but will only happen with encouragement of the organisers.

Takeaways:

  1. Involve managers of the trainees before and after the course.
  2. Even if your budget is only for 2 days, separate these.
  3. Provide a small task between sessions – a question to answer or technique to try.
  4. Ask attendees to share examples of when ideas from the training made a difference.

 

In these ways, even if you can precisely measure the financial benefit to the organisation, attendees will be consciously aware of the changes they make to their work. And the benefits will become clear to all involved and a culture of learning begins…

 

Playing to your strengths

When you are trying to improve your abilities at work, you need to find what you are less good at and then work on that.

Actually, no. Recent research has turned this whole idea of personal development on its head showing that it is far more effective to focus on the things that we like doing the most – the things that energise us. And having done so, the work is finding ways to use these strengths to our advantage. Yes we have to acknowledge our weaker spots, but rather than work trying to make these weak spots into strengths (which really doesn’t work!) we should use the things we are best at to counter.

The trouble has been in the past that we are so much better at worrying about our weaknesses than working to our strengths. And yet psychologists have known for a very long time that because we really can’t change our personality it is really very hard to change the limiting things that stem from our personality. So it is far more effective to focus on what you are good at and use those skills to overcome the blind spots.

When I first heard about this approach, I was very sceptical. There is so much nonsense being peddled that tries to make us think that making major changes in our lives are easy. And in my experience these are never what they seem. So I needed to be persuaded. And I absolutely have been. Learning about strengths and becoming qualified to use the Strengthscope tools has completely changed my entire approach to learning and growth. Nowadays my approach to coaching is to establish what energises the client and then work on ways to leverage that. I have seen how this approach can transform working relationships and make people more effective – and happier – at work. Hyperbole? Put it this way, being brought up in a decaying mill town in the north of England means I am cynical by nature and 20 years as an academic makes me demand evidence.

There’s more about the instrument I use here but if you are interested in exploring how it could make a real difference to you and your organisation, do get in touch.

One small step…

Many of us are relaxing at this time of year, but for some there is a nagging feeling that we need to make some changes in our work life. Perhaps you might be worried that you aren’t doing as well as you might. Or that there are problems with managing some people in your team. Or perhaps your relationship with your boss isn’t great.

Whatever it is, I am 100% sure you are not alone. People face work challenges all the time and it has been my absolute joy to help people through them. The key is that we already know what we need to do. We often just need someone to help us realise this, and then work out how to follow through.

And so I am suggesting you take a small step. Nothing too scary. Nothing that commits you to too much. So, what do I suggest?

Regardless of what the work problem  you are worried about, I am pretty certain to have seen it before. I have been coaching all kinds of people for 20 years now in all sorts of jobs in organisations as different as global oil companies to small auto dealerships. From the Civil Service to banks. And I’d love to be able to help you through whatever your challenges are. Why not arrange for us to have a chat? I promise to listen and help you clarify in your own mind what the issues are and how you can start doing things differently this year. Oh, and this first 30 minute conversation is completely free with no obligations whatever. More details about my approach are here. You can contact me via this form.

Go on –  this small step could be your “giant leap” forward!

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Changing the world, one nudge at a time.

As a psychologist I know only too well how people are driven by a complex interwoven set of drives, preferences and biases. And anyone who has tried to manage people knows how resistant to change human beings are. The leader is driven to improve, change and create and finds it frustrating when others are not driven in the same way. Some even go so far as to say it’s impossible to change other people – you can only change yourself (and that’s hard enough!). It is definitely true that changing someone’s behaviour fundamentally is not going to happen as the result of one initiative, project or intervention. But it happens best when it is done incrementally. And this is perfectly in tune with the underlying psychological research.

So what is Nudge all about? At the heart of it is one of the most well understood notions in psychology – reinforcement. This is where behaviour is monitored in some way and the ‘correct’ behaviour reinforced through reward. The other side of the coin would be to ‘punish’ the wrong behaviour although this is far less effective than positive reinforcement. This might sound underhand or even immoral but the technique is well understood and can be used in every workplace imaginable.

What is reward?

the main thing is that reward is not necessarily financial. Everyone needs to be appreciated and we all need to be certain that we are doing the right thing. I worked for a boss who was really very nice to me and always positive. but I was never quite sure I was doing the right thing. Was I focussed on the right projects? Was my style right? Was I doing enough? When I had my annual review, he said in so many words that I was doing very well and then was specific about what he liked about what I was doing and why. This was amazingly useful and I left that meeting on a high. But it would of course been so much better if he’d managed to do this earlier! I see my role now is to reinforce when he gives me this sort of feedback. Here’s a form of words:

” Thanks for that Dave. It is sometimes hard to know in the daily pressures of work whether we are putting out efforts in the right place so I really appreciate your telling me this so I know I am on the right track.”

Another example could be when I might not be focussed on the right thing and he tells me this. So I might respond:

“Dave, this is of course a bit difficult to hear because I am clearly not quite focussed on the right things. But it is so useful to have this feedback so I know what I need to change. I will work on this and perhaps I can check back with you to make sure it is now going the way you want it?”

So. Reinforcement is the first step. More of this another day!

What to do over the holidays

As most of the western world winds down (up?) for Christmas, I guess the obvious holiday advice from a psychologist is to switch off completely and take a break. But actually that’s not quite what I am going to suggest because if I did, very few people would follow my advice. So rather than suggesting people do stuff they have no intention of doing, here is my advice for a great holiday.

  1. Finish off. Make sure you get all the really vital stuff done before you leave for the break. There is nothing quite so satisfying as leaving work and knowing you have done all that really needs to be done and now you can go home and relax. As in a previous blog, you won’t be able to finish absolutely everything but make sure you are happy with what is left over. The nagging doubt in the back of your mind if something important wasn’t quite finished will reduce the quality of your down time and you won’t relax. So take a really hard look at what you are working on, decide what MUST be done before you go home, and make absolutely sure it is done. Even if it isn’t quite as perfect as you might want. Just get it done.
  2. Say thank you. It is a good time to reflect on the year and what everyone has contributed. Take time to thank your team in person and be specific – what they have done really well and the challenges they have overcome. This is even more important for junior members of the team and your admin support.
  3. Work – holiday. Most advice is that working on holiday is a very bad idea. And it can be. But in my experience so many people do actually keep up with at least some work whilst knowing that this is not what they should be doing, there must be a reason for it. And I think there is a mix of fear and attachment. Fear that you might not actually be indispensable. Attachment because you invest a great deal into your work and want to make sure it is all going well. I add another – fear that on the first day back, the inbox will be huge. So I suggest the following work for holiday:
    • You can check email from time to time, but never when you could be with your children or loved ones.
    • You can read papers, but be prepared to be interrupted (and welcome these!)
    • Do not expose yourself to anything that might get you angry – especially things you can’t do anything about until you return.
    • Be careful if sending email that it doesn’t give the impression that you believe your team should also be working on holiday.
  4. Take a deep breath. Literally and metaphorically. You should do whatever it takes for you to re-boot yourself ready for the new year. If you can remove yourself from work completely, then do so. You will find a clear head is more creative, can see new solutions and spot where mistakes are being made.

But the basic advice remains: switching off is good. It’s not a holiday if you are working all the time. And holidays are good for productivity and health.

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The fear of the new

I posted a selfie on Twitter last week from my last lecture of the term. I don’t usually do this but it was a special occasion; I am changing jobs and my new role doesn’t currently have me scheduled to deliver mainstream teaching. This may well change but, as it stands, after nearly 20 years that might well have been my last lecture. The significance of this is that I have built my career on being able to do certain things and (in all modesty) delivering engaging lectures has been something I have been known for all this time. And now I will not have this. So realising the change that is coming has left me in an unsettled frame of mind. I am very much looking forward to my new job, but part of me is looking back and taking stock.

I know this is natural and (mostly) healthy thing to do. We are creatures of habit and we like familiar things around us; we create our own little world at work consisting of the route to the office, people we greet in the morning, where we buy our coffee, the corridors we walk down. So even though we sometimes find that routine makes us bored, it is also comforting. When these routines are broken, it is unsettling, disturbing and can even trigger quite severe reactions.

On the other hand, we all change, all of the time. We learn new skills and hopefully get better at things through experience. More to the point, the role of the leader is to encourage change or else they probably aren’t really leading. But my current frame of mind has brought the reminder that when changes affect an individual, there is something very similar to a “fight or flight” response and I have remembered how uncomfortable this can be. For the person who has decided that a change is needed (the leader or manager), it is easy to forget the impact changes can have on those on whom it is imposed and leaders should remember this. It comes down to one of the absolute basics of great management – empathy. “What would this look like to the other person?”. It is not sympathy “poor things”, but a hard-headed analysis of how things appear from the other side of the desk which can then inform how you approach it. This is at the core of persuasion and influence.

So my point in this blog is a reminder to think about how everything you do will appear to the people concerned – especially when these appear to be minor changes to you.